This tutorial continues our quest to solve the problem of **forward kinematics**. After exploring a mathematical solution in The Mathematics of Forward Kinematics, we will see how to translate it into C# for Unity. The next tutorial, An Introduction to Gradient Descent, will finally show the theoretical foundations to solve **inverse kinematics**.

The other post in this series can be found here:

- Part 1. An Introduction to Procedural Animations
- Part 2. The Mathematics of Forward Kinematics
- Part 3.
**Implementing Forward Kinematics** - Part 4. An Introduction to Gradient Descent
- Part 5. Inverse Kinematics for Robotic Arms
- Part 6. Inverse Kinematics for Tentacles
- Part 7. Inverse Kinematics for Spider Legs

At the end of this post you can find a link to download all the assets and scenes necessary to replicate this tutorial.

#### Introduction

In the second part of this tutorial on Inverse Kinematics, The Mathematics of Forward Kinematics, we have formalised how a robotic arm moves. We started with a toy example, made by three joints. When in their resting positions, they assume the configuration seen in the diagram below:

In the diagram, the various represents the Cartesian coordinates or the -th joint. The *local angles* that indicates how much they rotate from their resting positions are labelled .

When joints rotate, we see the following:

The behaviour of this system has been summarised with the following statements:

**Rotation.**The*global rotation*of a joint is the sum of the rotations of all the previous joints:**Position.**The*global position*of a joint is given by:

Knowing all of the above, we can start thinking of a possible way to implement these behaviours in Unity.

#### GameObjects Hierarchy

Unity already comes with a way to implement all the requirements mentioned above: **parenting**. Setting a game object as child of another one automatically inherit the position, the rotation and the scale.

If you are familiar with rigging, this should not surprise you. The bones that represent the joints of a humanoid character are parented in such a way that rotations and translations are inherited. The following image, from Unity Animation 3: Character Setup (by Michael Arbuthnot) shows a clear example of this.

While building your hierarchy of joints, you have to make sure that the robotic arm is in resting position when all the local Euler angles are set to zero. In a humanoid character, this usually corresponds to the **standard T-stance **seen in the picture above.

#### The Implementation

The parenting option in Unity is, *de-facto*, solving the problem of forward kinematics for us. Unfortunately this is not enough. We will see in next part of this tutorial, Inverse Kinematics with Gradient Descent**,** that we actually need a way to test the position of the end effector *without* actually moving the robotic arm. This forces us to re-implement this basic feature in Unity.

The first step is to store some information on each joint of the robotic arm. This can be done by adding a script, such as RobotJoint in the example below.

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using UnityEngine; public class RobotJoint : MonoBehaviour { public Vector3 Axis; public Vector3 StartOffset; void Awake () { StartOffset = transform.localPosition; } } |

To simplify the calculations, we assume that each joint can only rotate around one its local axes: either X, Y or Z. We indicate that with a variable called Axis, which has a 1 in the position relative to the rotation axis. If this joint rotates around the Y axis, Axis would be (0,1,0). We will see how this allows us to avoid IF statements.

Let’s create a function, called ForwardKinematics. It takes as input an arrays of floats, called angles. The name is self-explanatory: angles[i] contains the local rotation for the i-th joint. The function returns the position of the end effector, in global coordinates.

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public Vector3 ForwardKinematics (float [] angles) { ... } |

The code is a straight forward implementation in C# of the position equation seen before. The rotate functions is implemented with the handy Quaternion.AngleAxis.

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Vector3 prevPoint = Joints[0].transform.position; Quaternion rotation = Quaternion.identity; for (int i = 1; i < Joints.Length; i++) { // Rotates around a new axis rotation *= Quaternion.AngleAxis(angles[i - 1], Joints[i - 1].Axis); Vector3 nextPoint = prevPoint + rotation * Joints[i].StartOffset; prevPoint = nextPoint; } return prevPoint; |

❓ Need help with Quaternions?

**roll**,

**pitch**e

**yaw**of an object in space. It’s not surprising that they are easy to understand. Mathematically speaking, however, using Euler angles can lead to some nasty problems.

A better way to work with angles is by using **quaternions**. Quaternions are mathematical objects that can be used to represent *rotations*. Euler angles, conversely, represent *orientations*. A quaternion represents a way to go from an orientation to another one. Technically speaking, this is a massive oversimplification, but for the purpose of this tutorial is more than enough.

##### Rotations ⇔ Quaternions

A quaternion can be imagined as a rotation. Rotating an object in space is, mathematically speaking, equivalent to multiply its position by a quaternion. In Unity, you can use the function Quaternion.AngleAxis to create a rotation around a fixed point. The line Quaternion.AngleAxis(angle, axis); creates a quaternion that represents a rotation around the axis axis by angle degrees. In this context, the value of Axis can be (1,0,0), (0,1,0) or (0,0,1) to indicates the X, Y or Z axis respectively. This explains why we have created the Axis variable in the RobotJoint class.

##### Adding rotations ⇔ Multiplying quaternions

Multiplying two quaternions creates a new quaternion, which incorporates both rotations. During each iteration of the for loop, the variable rotation is multiplied by the current quaternion. This means that it incorporate the rotations for all the joints.

##### Quaternion * Vector = Rotated Vector

Finally, quaternions are used in this line:

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Vector3 nextPoint = prevPoint + rotation * Joints[i].StartOffset; |

This maps one to one to:

A multiplication between a quaternion and a vector applies the rotation.

#### Other resources

- Part 1. An Introduction to Procedural Animations
- Part 2. The Mathematics of Forward Kinematics
- Part 3. Implementing Forward Kinematics
- Part 4. An Introduction to Gradient Descent
- Part 5. Inverse Kinematics for Robotic Arms
- Part 6. Inverse Kinematics for Tentacles
- Part 7. Inverse Kinematics for Spider Legs

**Patreon** You can download the Unity project for this tutorial on Patreon.

Credits for the 3D model of the robotic arm goes to Petr P. A big thanks also goes to Maurizio Scuiar.

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In the past two years I've been dedicating more and more of my time to the creation of quality tutorials, mainly about *game development* and *machine learning*. If you think these posts have either helped or inspired you, please consider supporting this blog.

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